VARICOSE The veins contain valves that allow the blood flow to be unidirectional towards the heart. Obstructions and excessive pressure in the veins prevent the closing of these valves and cause back leakage. As a result, the veins on the surface of the legs expands, become longer, become superficial, and become twisted. In addition, they have dirty blood in greenish, purple – blue color because of the dirty blood. This diseased vein cluster is called the varicose vein. Structural defects that occur in the valves for any reason (such as phlebitis, ie vascular inflammation, obesity, genetic causes, births, etc.) cause the blood to escape backward and due to the accumulation of blood continuously in the vein, expansion, elongation and bending of the veins occurs. . In addition, birth control pills, occupations that require permanent sitting or standing, excessive sunbathing, spa treatments can accelerate the formation of varicose veins. Night cramps, pain and itching are the most common complaints. PROBLEMS WITH VARICOSE VEINS
Phlebitis: It is an infection (inflammation) development in segments with clot in the varicose vein. This infection affects our lifestyle and can rarely lead to life-threatening situations. Venous ulcer: Mostlyseen on foot wrist and anterior side of the leg. Depending on the area of the varicose veins and the increase in venous pressure, the skin cannot be fed sufficiently because the capillaries do not provide enough clean blood, and even a mild trauma leads to wounds on the skin. Such wounds, despite all treatments, heal very difficult. When venous insufficiency is resolved, the blood supply to the wound site returns to normal and a rapid healing process begins. Hyperpigmentation(Dark Spots) : Skin becomes darker when it produces excess melanin, a natural skin pigment. This is called hyperpigmentation. There are many reasons for hyperpigmentation, including: Inflammation, hormone changes, sensitivity to sunlight, also known as sunspots, aging, causing age spots or liver spots, genetic factors, melasma, a condition that causes hyperpigmentation of the skin when it’s exposed to sunlight. Edema (swelling): In the varicose leg, the veins do not carry enough blood to the heart sufficiently, the capillary pressure increases and there is fluid leakage out of the vein, causing swelling at various levels in the leg. Hemorrhage : The areas with varicose veins have thinner subcutaneous connective tissue. If not treated it can be punctured spontaneously or with a simple trauma and can cause very difficult bleeding. THE DIAGNOSIS OF DOPPLER USG IN VARICOSE DISEASES People with varicose veins should be examined by Doppler ultrasonography as well as systemic examination. This method uses sound waves that are completely harmless to the human body. With Doppler USG, the valvular insufficiency of the veins is graded and the diseased venous map is removed. TREATMENT METHODS A treatment strategy is developed by evaluating the venous map extracted by clinical examination and Doppler USG. The most commonly used methods today; Laser applications, sclerotherapy and surgery. Laser Treatment: Used for capillary varices with diameters of 1mm and less, YAG lasers are the most popular devices used for this purpose. The laser beams are absorbed into the heat energy by being absorbed by the oxyhemoglobin molecule in the red blood cells (erythrocytes). Oxyhemoglobin causes heat of the blood cells in the blood vessels to warm up and tightly adheres the vessel walls. As a result, the capillary varicose veins appearing under the skin are destroyed. For this purpose, radio frequency method is used. Advantages of laser treatment; less pain and discomfort, no surgical incision, no bruising or swelling, no short-term improvement, no general anesthesia.
Sclerotherapy: It is used for varicose veins with diameters between 1 and 5mm. Today, it is a classic treatment method. A capillary needle is injected into the veins, an adhesive substance (polidocanol) is injected into the vein and the vessel walls are destroyed by adherence. The foam method is also a round sclerotherapy. Usually it is preferred for 3- 5mm diameter vessels. The adhesive agent is first foamed in the injector. The purpose of this is to increase the effectiveness of the adhesive depending on the expanding diameter of the vein, then injected into the vein and the vessel is destroyed. Classic varicose vein surgery, called venous striping, carries some risks and no longer preferred because of the necessity of a few surgical incisions in the leg, the removal of the vessels almost completely, the bruising and swelling of the leg due to internal bleeding and the loss of work and power. PROTECTIVE PRINCIPLES AND THE IMPORTANCE OF VARICOSE VEINS STOCKING Regardless of the method of treatment for varicose veins, it is necessary to pay attention to certain aspects of life. Like any disease, it may recur. In summer, sunbathing, spa treatments, smoking, regular walking exercises, excessive use of contraceptives, initiate varicose veins and aggregate existing disease. Varicose stockings should be worn immediately after the treatment begins. Sizes should be determined by the physician, should be worn in the morning and should be removed at the time of bed. We also recommend that the varicose stockings should be worn for life outside the summer months. HEMORRHOIDS WHAT IS HEMOROID? Enlarged varicose veins in the anal canal is the cause of hemorrhoids. Continuous constipation, which will damage the internal surface of the anal canal and prevent normal protection of the veins, causes hemorrhoidsHemorrhoids inside the breech are internal hemorrhoids. The external hemorrhoids, which can be felt by hand, are external hemorrhoids and may hang out when they exit the anus. Cold, fermented drinks (beer, whiskey, wine) are other important reasons that make spicy and spicy foods hemorrhoids.